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- MMV Kirk P. Williams
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Arabic Numeral /
Roman Numeral |
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The Simple PrincipleRoman numerals are mathematically converted to Arabic numerals simply through the assignment of an Arabic numerical value to each letter and calculating a total. ExampleM=1000 | D=500 | C=100 | L=50 | X=10 | V=5 | I=1 The letters (roman numerals) are arranged from left to right with each letter decreasing in value as you go "down the line." The totals are derived through adding the numerical equivalent of all the letters. Therefore . . .MDCLXVI = 1000 + 500 + 100 + 50 + 10 + 5 + 1 = 1666. GenerallyThe above eample does not give a full representation of present day convention. The current rules regarding the use of Roman numerals have been employed only in relatively recent times. It appears that the principle of "subtraction" has always been used, but in earlier periods of history, the use of subtraction was an alternative to the more simplistic use addition. Today, the convention is to use the largest possible numeral within a sequence. Therefore, 15 is XV and not VVV or XIIIII. Although Roman numerals generally read from left to right in descending order, this leads to some extremely long sequences! (99 would be LXXXXVIIII.) Be aware . . . only I, X, and C can be
used this way. V, L, and D cannot. And, M cannot because it is the largest
Roman numeral available! Also, only a single smaller number can be
placed to the left of a larger number. 18 cannot be written XIIX as it would be
ambiguous and could be interpreted as 11 + 9 = 20 instead of 10 - 2 + 10 =
18.The subtracted number can be no less than a 10th of the value of the number from which it is being subtracted. So, an X can be placed to the left of a C or an L but not to the left of an M or a D. Each power of ten is dealt with separately. So, 49 is XLIX and not IL Microsoft Excel® provides a function to reflect numbers in Roman numeral format. In order to display Roman numerals, type "=ROMAN(n)" where "n" is your Arabic numeral. To convert Arabic numbers into Roman numerals, type (in a blank cell) "ROMAN(A1)" where the "A1" references the cell containing the Arabic numeral you wish to convert. |
1801 = MDCCCI 1811 = MDCCCXI 1821 = MDCCCXXI 1831 = MDCCCXXXI 1841 = MDCCCXLI 1851 = MDCCCLI 1861 = MDCCCLXI 1871 = MDCCCLXXI 1881 = MDCCCLXXXI 1891 = MDCCCXCI |
1901 = MCMI 1911 = MCMXI 1921 = MCMXXI 1931 = MCMXXXI 1941 = MCMXLI 1951 = MCMLI 1961 = MCMLXI 1971 = MCMLXXI 1981 = MCMLXXXI 1991 = MCMXCI |
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Abbreviated listing for the 21st
Century |
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21st Century2001 =
MMI2002 = MMII 2003 = MMIII 2004 = MMIV 2005 = MMV 2006 = MMVI 2007 = MMVII 2008 = MMVIII 2009 = MMIX 2010 = MMX 2011 = MMXI 2012 = MMXII 2013 = MMXIII 2014 = MMXIV 2015 = MMXV 2016 = MMXVI 2017 = MMXVII 2018 = MMXVIII 2019 = MMXIX 2020 = MMXX |
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Bear created by George M.Sanchez www.georgesanchez.com |
L I N K S to related
pagesCollectible Sheet Music at weplan.com (a JavaScript
calculator) to convert Roman Numeral calendar dates.Otfried Lieberknecht's Calendar Tools Stephen Ostermiller's Roman Numeral Converter and Self
TestSteven Gibbs' Roman Numeral Calculator Grammar and everyday faux pas |